VI  Sem




Subject Code:

Hours per week 04                                                                            Total hours: 64hr.    



SI. No Topic                                                                                      Hours allocated


1.         Introduction                                                                                        2

2.         Permanent way                                                                                   2

3.         Rails                                                                                                    4

4.         Sleepers                                                                                               3

5.         Ballast                                                                                                 3

6.         Cross section of a railway track                                                          3

7.         Track geometrics                                                                                 6

8.         Maintenance of track                                                                          2

9.         Station and yards                                                                                2

10.       Points and crossings                                                                            2

11.       Signaling and interlocking                                                                  2




12.       Introduction                                                                                        1

13.       Tunnel Surveying                                                                                3

14.       Size and shape of tunnels                                                                   2

15.       Ventilation of tunnels                                                                         2

16.       Constructing of tunnels                                                                      3

17.       Tunnel lining                                                                                       2         

18.       Drainage of tunnels                                                                             2




19.       Introduction                                                                                        1

20.       Break waters                                                                                       2

21.       Jetties and quays                                                                                 2

22.       Signals                                                                                                 2

23.       Docks                                                                                                  2

24.       Dredging                                                                                             2

            Tests                                                                                                    3

            Innovation and Seminar                                                                      4

            Total                                                                                                   64




General educational objectives:      

Upon completion of the study of the subject, the student should be able to

1          Appreciate the importance of railways to the development of a country

2          Know the different types of railway tracks; railway fastenings & maintenance of 


3          Understand the functions of stations, yards, points and crossings and

            the method of signaling and interlocking.

4          Understand the importance of tunnels in transportation engineering.

5          Understand the methods of tunnel surveying, fixing the tunnel shape and size,

            and providing the facilities like ventilation, drainage and lining.

6          Know the different types of harbours and their component parts

7          Know the types & functions of the components like breakwater, jetties,

            signals, docks and the method of dredging.


Specific InstructionalObjectives

Upon the completion of the study of the subject, the student should be able to      

1          Understand and appreciate the importance of railways

1.1       State the necessity of railways

1.2       Compare roads and railways


2          Know the different types of railway tracks, railway fastenings and maintenance of


2.1       State different gauges used in Indian railways

2.2       State the advantages of having uniformity of gauges

2.3       Explain the component parts of permanent way

2.4       Explain the necessity of coning of wheels

2.5       State the advantages and disadvantages of CC & PSC types of sleepers

2.6       Sketch the cross sections of railway track for BG

2.7       Know the types of ballast

2.8       Sketch and dimensioning of flat footed rail

2.9       Know the maintenance of railway track

2.10     Know the duties of permanent way inspector

2.11     Know the types of gradients and super elevation

2.12     Understand the importance of widening of a railway track on curves


3          Understand the functions of stations and yards, points

            and crossings and the methods of signaling and interlocking

3.1       Describe different types of stations and yards

3.2       List the types of points and crossings with sketches

3.3       Explain the various signals and interlocking arrangements with suitable sketches


4          Understand the importance of tunnels in transportation engineering

4.1       List the advantages and disadvantages of tunnels



5          Understand the methods of tunnel surveying, fixing the tunnel shape &

            Size and providing facilities like ventilation, drainage and lining

5.1       State the methods of locating the center line of a tunnel

5.2       State the factors affecting the size and shape of the tunnel

5.3       Explain the purpose, size and location of shafts in ventilation

5.4       Explain the different aspects of drainage and lining the tunnel


6          Know the different types of harbours and their component parts

6.1       Sketch harbour layout indicating its component parts

6.2       List the factors to be considered for selection of site for different types of harbour


7          Know the types and functions of the components like breakwaters,

            jetties, signals, quays, docks and dredging

7.1       List the types and functions of breakwaters

7.2       List the types and functions of jetties and quays

7.3       Describe various signals used in harbours

7.4       Explain the functions of different types docks

7.5       Know the necessity of dredging

7.6       Know the hydraulic dredger




PART  A.  Railways

I. Introduction

            1.      Necessity of new railway lines

            2.      Comparison of roads and railways

            3.      Railway terminology

            4.      Systems of railways

II. Permanent way

            1.      Definition and requirements of an ideal permanent way

            2.      Selection of gauge

            3.      Advantages of uniformity in gauges

            4.      Component parts of a permanent way

III .Rails

            1.      Function and requirements of rails

            2.      List the types of rail sections –study of flat footed rails

            3.      Length of rails

            4.      Rail joints – types and requirement

            5.      Welding of rails – methods and advantages

            6.      Creep-definition, causes and prevention

            7.      Coning of wheels

IV. Sleepers

            1.      Definition & functions of sleepers

            2.      List the types of sleepers - requirements and study of   CC & PSC sleepers

            3.      Advantages and disadvantages of CC & PSC sleepers

            4.      Sleeper de

V .Ballast

            1.      Functions of ballast

            2.      Requirements of ballast

            3.      List the types of ballasts-study of broken stones & cinders

VI. Cross sections of railway track

            1.      Cross sections of railway track in cutting and embankment for

         both single and double tracks (BG only)

2.            Fixtures and fastenings-definition and functions only (Fish plates, Bolts,

                     Springs and Chairs)       

VII .Track geometrics          

            1.      Factors governing the alignment of railway track        

            2.      Gradient and types of gradients           

            3.      Super elevation-definition and objects 

            4.      Relation of super elevation, gauge, speed and radius of the    

curve-derivation and simple problems (Without Derivation)

5.            Widening of gauges on curves  


PART  B  Railways


VIII. Track maintenance     

            1.      Definition, necessity and classification

            2.      Duties of permanent way inspector      

IX. Station and Yards          

            1.      Technical terms used in stations                       

            2.      List the classification of railway stations                      

            3.      Layouts of railway station-class B, crossing type wayside on             

                     double line track and terminal station   

            4.      Definition, purpose and requirements of railway yards            

            5.      List the classification of railway yards             

            6.      Layout of marshalling yard                   

            7.      Level crossing               

X .Points and crossings                    

            1.      Definition and necessity                       

            2.      Layout of a double line turnout with technical terms associated with it                      

XI. Signaling and interlocking                    

            1.      Definition and Objects of signaling                  

            2.      List the classification of signals            

            3.      Study of Semaphore & colored signals            

            4.      Definition, necessity & principle of interlocking          


PART C. Tunnels

I. Introduction          

            1.    Definition of tunnels       

            2.    Advantages and disadvantages of tunnels         


II .Tunnel Surveying

            1.  Setting out the alignment of the tunnel on the ground     

            2.  Constructing the shafts over the centre line         

            3.  Transferring the alignment to inside of the tunnel

III. Size and shape of tunnels          

            1.  List the different shapes of the tunnels    

            2.  Cross-sections of tunnels- circular, segmental & horse shoe tunnels        

            3.  Factors affecting the size of the tunnel    

IV. Construction of tunnels 

            1.      List the different types of tunneling     

            2.      Needle beam method of tunneling

            3.      Heading and bench method of tunneling

V .Tunnel lining

            1.      Objects of lining

            2.      Types of lining

VI .Ventilation of the tunnels

            1.  Natural method of ventilation

            2.  Mechanical method of ventilation

VII. Drainage of tunnels

            1.      Definition and purpose

            2.      Temporary drainage system

            3.      Permanent drainage system


PART D Harbours

I .Introduction

            1.      Definition & classification of harbours

            2.      Selection of site for a good harbour

II. Breakwaters

            1.      Definition and its function

            2.      Types of breakwaters-vertical wall type & composite

III. Jetties & quays

            1.      Functions

            2.      Types of quays & jetties

IV. Signals

            1.      Requirement of signals

            2.      List the types of signals

            3.      Study of beacon signal

V. Docks

            1.      Definition & types of docks

VI .Dredging

            1.      Definition & necessity of dredging

            2.      List the types of dredgers

            3.      Study of hydraulic dredger.




            1.      Roads Railway tunnels and Harbors By H S Vishwanath, Sapna


            2.      Transporting engineering by N L Arora

            3.      Transporting engineering by A Kamala

            4.      A text book of railway engineering by Saxena & Arora

            5.      Tunnel Engineering by S P Bindra

            6.      A text book of Railway engineering by S C Rangawala

            7.      Tunnel Engineering by S C Saxena

            8.      Harbours, docks and tunnel engineering by Srinivasan


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